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Introduction to SAP


What is SAP?

SAP is the leading Enterprise Information and Management Package worldwide. Use of this package makes it possible to track and manage, in real-time, sales, production, finance accounting and human resources in an enterprise.

SAP the company was founded in Germany in 1972 by five ex-IBM engineers. In case you’re ever asked, SAP stands for Systeme, Andwendungen, Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung which – translated to English – means Systems, Applications, Products in Data Processing. So now you know! Being incorporated in Germany, the full name of the parent company is SAP AG. It is located in Walldorf, Germany which is close to the beautiful town of Heidelberg. SAP has subsidiaries in over 50 countries around the world from Argentina to Venezuela (and pretty much everything in between). SAP America (with responsibility for North America, South America and Australia – go figure!) is located just outside Philadelphia, PA.

The original five founders have been so successful that they have multiplied many times over such that SAP AG is now the third largest software maker in the world, with over 17,500 customers (including more than half of the world’s 500 top companies). SAP employs over 27,000 people worldwide today, and had revenues of $7.34 billion and Net Income of $581 million in FY01. SAP is listed in Germany (where it is one of the 30 stocks which make up the DAX) and on the NYSE (ticker:SAP).

There are now 44,500 installations of SAP, in 120 countries, with more then 10 million users!

So what made this company so successful? Back in 1979 SAP released SAP R/2 (which runs on mainframes) into the German market. SAP R/2 was the first integrated, enterprise wide package and was an immediate success. For years SAP stayed within the German borders until it had penetrated practically every large German company. Looking for more growth, SAP expanded into the remainder of Europe during the 80’s. Towards the end of the 80’s, client-server architecture became popular and SAP responded with the release of SAP R/3 (in 1992). This turned out to be a killer app for SAP, especially in the North American region into which SAP expanded in 1988.

The success of SAP R/3 in North America has been nothing short of stunning. Within a 5 year period, the North American market went from virtually zero to 44% of total SAP worldwide sales. SAP America alone employs more than 3,000 people and has added the names of many of the Fortune 500 to it’s customer list (8 of the top 10 semiconductor companies, 7 of the top 10 pharmaceutical companies etc). SAP today is available in 46 country-specific versions, incorporating 28 languages including Kanji and other double-byte character languages. SAP also comes in 21 industry-specific versions.

SAP R/3 is delivered to a customer with selected standard process turned on, and many many other optional processes and features turned off. At the heart of SAP R/3 are about 10,000 tables which control the way the processes are executed. Configuration is the process of adjusting the settings of these tables to get SAP to run the way you want it to. Think of a radio with 10,000 dials to tune and you’ll get the picture. Functionality included is truly enterprise wide including: Financial Accounting (e.g. general ledger, accounts receivable etc), Management Accounting (e.g. cost centers, profitability analysis etc), Sales, Distribution, Manufacturing, Production Planning, Purchasing, Human Resources, Payroll etc etc etc. For a full description of the modules included in SAP, see the related articles. All of these modules are tightly integrated which – as you will find out – is a huge blessing … but brings with it special challenges.

SAP are maintaining and increasing their dominance over their competitors through a combination of

  • embracing the internet with mySAP.com (a confusing name we believe) to head off i2 etc
  • extending their solutions with CRM to head off Siebel
  • adding functionality to their industry solutions

What Makes SAP different?

Traditional computer information systems used by many businesses today have been developed to accomplish some specific tasks and provide reports and analysis of events that have already taken place. Examples are accounting general ledger systems. Occasionally, some systems operate in a “real-time” mode that is, have up to date information in them and can be used to actually control events. A typical company has many separate systems to manage different processes like production, sales and accounting. Each of these systems has its own databases and seldom passes information to other systems in a timely manner.

SAP takes a different approach. There is only one information system in an enterprise, SAP. All applications access common data. Real events in the business initiate transactions. Accounting is done automatically by events in sales and production. Sales can see when products can be delivered. Production schedules are driven by sales. The whole system is designed to be real-time and not historical.

SAP structure embodies what are considered the “best business practices”. A company implementing SAP adapts it operations to it to achieve its efficiencies and power.

The process of adapting procedures to the SAP model involves “Business Process Re-engineering” which is a logical analysis of the events and relationships that exist in an enterprise’s operations.

 

 

SAP Application Modules

 

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SAP Application Modules

SAP has several layers. The Basis System is the heart of the data operations and should be not evident to higher level or managerial users. Other customizing and implementation tools exist also. The heart of the system from a manager’s viewpoint are the application modules. These modules may not all be implemented in a typical company but they are all related and are listed below:

  • FI Financial Accounting–designed for automated management and external reporting of general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other sub-ledger accounts with a user defined chart of accounts. As entries are made relating to sales production and payments journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means that the “books” are designed to reflect the real situation.

 

  • CO Controlling–represents the company’s flow of cost and revenue. It is a management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is automatically updated as events occur.
  • AM Asset Management–designed to manage and supervise individual aspects of fixed assets including purchase and sale of assets, depreciation and investment management.
  • PS Project System–is designed to support the planning, control and monitoring of long-term, highly complex projects with defined goals.
  • WF Workflow–links the integrated SAP application modules with cross-application technologies, tools and services
  • IS Industry Solutions–combine the SAP application modules and additional industry-specific functionality. Special techniques have been developed for industries such as banking, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, etc.
  • HR Human Resources–is a complete integrated system for supporting the planning and control of personnel activities.
  • PM Plant Maintenance–In a complex manufacturing process maintenance means more than sweeping the floors. Equipment must be services and rebuilt. These tasks affect the production plans.
  • MM Materials Management–supports the procurement and inventory functions occurring in day-to-day business operations such as purchasing, inventory management, reorder point processing, etc.
  • QM Quality Management–is a quality control and information system supporting quality planning, inspection, and control for manufacturing and procurement.
  • PP Production Planning–is used to plan and control the manufacturing activities of a company. This module includes; bills of material, routings, work centers, sales and operations planning, master production scheduling, material requirements planning, shop floor control, production orders, product costing, etc.
  • SD Sales and Distribution–helps to optimize all the tasks and activities carried out in sales, delivery and billing. Key elements are; pre-sales support, inquiry processing, quotation processing, sales order processing, delivery processing, billing and sales information system

 

Each of these Modules may have sub-modules designed for specific tasks as detailed below.

System-Wide Features

 

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System-Wide Features

SAP uses certain system wide features that should be understood at the outset. These are used to logically, safely and flexibly organize the data in a business enterprise.

 

  • Customizing

is the configuring of the system to represent your organization’s legal structure, reporting requirements and business processes. Internal reporting is a managerial tool in the daily operations. External reporting is required by governmental units controlling the legal structure of the corporation, such as, the IRS state taxing authorities, SEC etc.

  • Organizational Elements
    • Financial–
      • client is a legal and organizationally independent unit at the highest level in SAP
      • company is an independent legal entity within a client
      • business areas are used to produce profit and loss statements and balanced sheets across marketing lines
    • Materials Management
      • Purchasing units
      • Plants
    • Sales and Distribution
      • Sales Organization
      • Distribution channel
      • Division
  • Master Data is records that remain in the database over an extended period of time. Examples:
    • Customer Master
    • Vendor Master
    • Material master
    • Account Master

This structure eliminates redundant data and is shared by all SAP Modules. It is a critical aspect of the robustness of the system.

  • Employee Self Service--your employees have access to the own HR records over the Internet.
  • Security is administered for objects, profiles and authorizations. Users are only authorized to see or change the parts of the system required by their job responsibilities.
  • Classification is the assignment of objects to a class. Each class has standard characteristics.
  • Matchcodes are query tools used to find specific information using search methods.

Business Processes and SAP Functionality

In order to understand a system like SAP a thorough understanding of the events and relationships that take place in a business is required. It is not enough to just realize the Sales, Production, Finance and Accounting have jobs to do in a business. The exact details of each action, the timing of that action and its interrelationships with every other process must be understood. In many large operations there may be no person that has a complete grasp of the situation. Before an operation can be automated or computerized a thorough study of the business must be undertaken. This task is called Business Process Engineering.

 

Sequential Walk Through

 

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Sequential Walk Through

  • Sales
    • Pre-sales activity–planning and availability support for the sales personnel
    • Sales Order–The actual entry of the sales order into the system done by the salesperson at the point of sales perhaps using a PC and Internet connections.
    • Determining where the most efficient source of the ordered product is in inventory and shipping it.
    • Delivery
    • Customer Billing
    • Customer Payment

 

  • Production
    • Sales and Operations Planning SOP where the sales forecasts are used in a production planning model to check feasibility.
    • Master Production Scheduling MPS–The actual plan for the whole production process
    • Material Requirements Planning MRP–Where the production plan is actually converted into raw materials input requirements.
    • Planned Order–When materials are available and capacity exists this plan is created and then converted into a
    • Production Order.
    • Shop Floor Control where the actual production takes place and is registered into the system as finished goods.
  • Purchasing
    • Requisition–Once the Production manager plans to manufacture something a requisition for the raw materials required but not on hand must be prepared.
    • Vendor Selection–made by the purchasing department
    • Purchase order sent
    • goods receipt increasing inventory
    • Invoice verification as it is received from vendor
    • Payment to vendor.
  • Finance and Accounting
    • Sales events must be captured at the proper time into the ledger system
    • Inventory must be adjusted to match goods shipped
    • Inventory must be adjusted to match raw materials received
    • Inventory must be adjusted to move value from raw materials to work in process
    • Inventory must be adjusted to increase finished goods when they are produced
    • Accounts Payable must be set up for purchases
    • Accounts Receivable must reflect goods billed but not yet paid for

Business Process Engineering must not only identify all these steps but must also find the most efficient way to minimize redundant actions. For example, when sales are made, inventory and manufacturing plans should be automatically updated. When manufacturing plans are updated raw materials should be automatically ordered from vendors. When finished goods are shipped customers should be automatically billed at the same instant. Real situations are far more complex than the simple explanation above.

About SEO


1. Analyze keywords : This step has to be taken place initially while developing the website, Keywords, those are very useful for your business should be used in the content of the website itself. In other case, if you are looking for SEO to brush up your website then make update of the articles and blogs useful for your website in the content afterwards containing the Keywords having density 4%. This will help you in getting more traffic.
2. Use keywords in the page content : Keywords should be used in 4% density as it is very useful in link building, Putting the keyword in your page content also signals to search engines that the page is actually about the keyword and should show up in search results. We have heard from “experts” that you should use your keyword anywhere from 4-6 times to 10-12 times.Our advice is to just write naturally.

3. Put keywords in Meta Data : While the page metadata (Page Description and Keywords) are not nearly as important as they used to be, they still count.Take advantage of them by putting your keyword or phrase there.The description should be readable by a person and make sense and the keyword metadata should focus on your keyword or phrase – do not make it long, less is more
4. Put keywords in Page Title :The Page Title is one of the most important things that Google and other search engines evaluate to determine what is on a web page.Put your keyword or phrase in the title, keep it short.
5. Put keywords in your H1 text :The H1 text is usually the title of an article or some larger bold text at the top of your page.Google and the smaller search engines can see this and they put extra importance on the words in the H1 text.Make sure your keyword or phrase is there.
6. Reduce Image Size :Too many images or large images on your website page will slow down the loading time of your website. Confirm your images have a resolution of 72ppi. Slice big images into smaller pieces with your graphics editor.
7. Find incoming links (backward links) : Websites that link to yours raise your link popularity. Search for websites that are relevant with yours and have a PR 3 or more to do a link exchange. Write optimized articles and include them on your website. This means your website has a greater opportunity of being indexed quickly also as getting a boost in its rankings.Create absolute links from all your internal pages to your home page. This will increase the number of links pointing to your homepage.
8. Place any script code into external files : when using JavaScript (i.e. for exchange images on your navigation bar) it creates a lot of code between the header tags, pushing down the text that search, engines would spider first. Placing the script code in an outer file reduces the code to just one line.
9. Write clean html code : website editors frequently write additional code. This can increase the loading time of your website pages. Verify your html code by running it through an html validator
10. Monitor Your Rank : Give the search engines some time to do their thing and then keep checking your rank to see what happened and track your progress.

Welcome Dear Friend!


We are a group of IT professionals We can offer websites n softwares and graphic designers and web templetes. We, IT service providers, you can choose/post many projects. You are most welcome here. Let us share ideas, doubts and many more in the king of programming languages. * You will find Developer , Coder, Designer, Stylist, Scripter , Flasher & SEO * specialists You will be able to post as many tasks as you want, these tasks could be in any Programming language. We work on: * WEB DESIGN o Flash o AJAX * Programming o JS o PHP o MySQL o ASP.NET o VB.NET o Flash Action Script For FAQs, see the thread:

http://www.jaimalsfirstblog.blogspot.com

http://www.dilbagkoundal.webs.com

How Green is your Valley?


Though India's per capita carbon emission is low, urbanites have a high personal carbon footprint. Here's how to reduce it at little cost-

IF YOU go by numbers alone, concerns about carbon emission may seem exaggerated. At an average per capita carbon emission of 1.18 tonnes, India is a laggard compared with countries like the US (19 tonnes), Japan (9.7 tonnes) and even our stiffest competitor China (4.6 tonnes). Moreover, households contribute a meagre 10-12 per cent to the national carbon footprint. So why bother about the carbon emission you are responsible for or the ways to reduce it?

"It is because the top 25 per cent of the population, which includes the middle class, has a larger carbon footprint than others," says Jyoti Parikh, executive director, Integrated Research and Action for Development (Irade). "As low-income households consume more resources to improve their standard of living, their footprint will increase. To maintain the overall balance, the top bracket must reduce energy wastage."

The CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre has helped formulate the carbon footprint of an average urban household for money today. According to their study, an urban family of four emits 13,865 kg of greenhouse gases every year. Says N. Muthusezhiyan, senior counsellor at the CII Centre, "We have assumed the maximum possible usage of devices. Most people will have a carbon footprint ranging from 80-100 per cent of 13,865 kg."

This figure may be lower than the average household emission in the West, but it is way higher than the carbon footprint of rural and low-income families. "It is the difference between owning two cars and none. If people incorporate the steps that we have suggested (see Small is not Costly), middle-class households can cut emissions by as much as 42 per cent," he says.

The problem, as most people believe, is that shrinking your carbon footprint may bloat your budget. A green lifestyle, they think, is an elitist pursuit and requires big-ticket expenses. Is it true or just a convenient way to pass the buck?

To find the answer, we worked out the cost of adopting the measures suggested by CII. The result is surprising. A green lifestyle can be yours for as little as Rs 1.03 lakh a year. We say 'little' because this is not incremental, but absolute cost. Moreover, it includes one-time expenses like a 5-star rated air conditioner, a solar heater and double-glazed glass for windows. From the second year onwards, staying green becomes much cheaper – about Rs 8,020.

The only other obstacle in popular imagination is the tedium of maintaining an eco-friendly lifestyle. "It involves no hassles," says 40-year-old Arjun Valluri, who built a green home in Hyderabad last year. It boasts solar panels for heating, a sewage treatment plant and double-glazed glass windows, besides other features. "Of the nearly Rs 6 crore that I spent, only five-six per cent was on green additions," says Valluri. It is no noblesse oblige that motivated him to shell out extra. "The payback period for these measures is five years. For instance, the monthly electricity bill for a house of this size would be about Rs 22,000, whereas I pay only Rs 4,000-5,000 a month," he says.

Does this convince you that an eco-friendly lifestyle is easy to adopt and inexpensive to maintain? However, you may not know how to start building one.

Here is a ready reckoner to take you through the nitty- gritty of going green.

Construction add- ons

If you are lucky enough to be building an independent house, you can enjoy a greener lifestyle than those living in an apartment.

Introduce the green elements at the blueprint stage itself. For instance, ensure that you make maximum utilisation of day light to reduce electricity bills. The trick is to know when too much light transmission will result in too much heat and increase your cooling cost.

Experts suggest that sunlight ranging from 100 to 500 lux (the unit used to measure illuminance) is adequate for a room.

Similarly, good ventilation is crucial to keep the cooling bills down. For the same reason, maintain a low window- to- wall ratio.

This means that the number of windows in every room should be as few as possible. Says Vishal Garg, associate professor and head, Centre for IT in Building Sciences, IIIT, Hyderabad, "An ordinary window with an area of 1 sq m brings in about 850 watt of heat if it is exposed to direct sunlight.

This can be cut by 75 per cent by using shades, doubleglazed glass, etc." As windows account for 10- 25 per cent of your heating bills, these methods are very cost- effective in the long run.

The upfront cost of doubleglazed glass is steep, ranging from Rs 400- 800 per sq ft, but you can opt for cheaper alternatives like sun films or shades, though they aren't as aesthetic as glass.

Retrofitting apartments

Readymade homes do not have too many options for changes in architecture. As the shell cannot be torn apart, you must concentrate on energy conservation by using efficient equipment. However, little things do add up.

Intelligent equipment

For most people, energy- efficiency ends with buying a starrated air conditioner. "Refrigerators also have a high electricity intake as they are never switched off," says Garg. They can constitute up to 35 per cent of the total electricity consumption of your household depending on their capacity and your usage pattern.

So it is important that all appliances have a high star rating.

Fuel economy

Apart from the obvious, such as walking instead of driving to the neighbourhood market and car pooling, you can reduce fuel consumption by maintaining your car well and driving by rules.

 

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Earth in the Beginning


The early Earth was a vision of hell, all scalding rock and choking fumes. Since then, its surface has cooled, continents have drifted, mountains have risen and eroded, and life has emerged, benign and green. Nearly all traces of the planet as it was have been wiped away. But from clues in the oldest rocks, deepest magmas, and even the cratered face of the moon, scientists have traced the planet's beginnings.

As those early days have come into focus, so have the rare scenes, found today in some of Earth's harshest places, that recall its ancient self.

Its birth pangs began some 4.6 billion years ago as rock and ice particles swirling around the young sun collided and merged, snowballing to produce ever larger planetary building blocks. In violent pileups, they smashed together to create planets, including the infant Earth. In the turmoil, another body, as big as Mars, struck our planet with the energy of trillions of atomic bombs, enough to melt it all the way through.

Most of the impactor was swallowed up in the bottomless magma ocean it created. But the collision also flung a small world's worth of vaporized rock into orbit. Debris quickly gathered itself into a ball, and since then Earth history has unfolded beneath the blank stare of the moon.

After the moon's fiery birth, the Earth's surface cooled. Even so, our planet remained an alien world for the next 700 million years; scientists call this time the Hadean, after the Greek underworld. Rafts of solid rock drifted in the magma like dark ice floes.

Gases hissed from the cooling rock—carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and others-enveloping the planet in a scalding atmosphere devoid of oxygen. As the temperature dropped further, the steam condensed into rain that tell in primordial monsoons and filled the ocean basins.

These first oceans may have been short-lived. Space rubble left over from the birth of the planets-chunks of rock tens to hundreds of miles across-bombarded Earth throughout the Hadean. The greatest impacts might have boiled the oceans away, forcing the process of cooling and condensation to begin again.

By 3.8 billion years ago the impacts relented. Liquid water could persist. About that time, perhaps in the oceans, lifeless chemical reactions crossed a threshold, producing molecules complex enough to reproduce themselves and evolve toward greater complexity. Life was on a road that led, as early as 3.5 billion years ago, to single-celled, blue-green cyanobacteria that flourished in the sunlit parts of the oceans.

By the trillions, these microscopic organisms transformed the planet. They captured the energy of the sun to make food, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Little by little they turned the atmosphere into breathable air, opening the way to the diversity of life that followed.

Those days are long gone, but the processes that turned our planet from a hell to a habitable world are still on view today. Primordial heat left over from the planet's formation still bursts out in volcanic eruptions, spilling lava that exudes gases like the young, cooling Earth.

In the planet's harshest environments today, cyanobacteria reign as they have for billions of years. And each time a plant gains a toehold on newly cooled lava, the victory of life over lifeless rock—won so long ago on the young Earth-is affirmed again.

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